Current Affairs 2019
On 20th December 2013, the 68th session of the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 3rd March as #WorldWildlifeDay to celebrate and raise awareness of the world’s wild #fauna and #flora. The date is the day of the signature of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1973, which is an international agreement between governments aiming to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. World Wildlife Day is an opportunity to celebrate the many beautiful and varied forms of wild fauna and flora and to raise awareness of the various challenges faced by these species.
Current Affairs 2019
The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are at the core of international humanitarian law, the body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects. They specifically protect people who are not taking part in the hostilities (civilians, health workers and aid workers) and those who are no longer participating in the hostilities, such as wounded, sick and shipwrecked soldiers and prisoners of war. The Conventions and their Protocols call for measures to be taken to prevent or put an end to all breaches. They contain stringent rules to deal with what are known as “grave breaches”. Those responsible for grave breaches must be sought, tried or extradited, whatever nationality they may hold.
The 1949 Geneva Conventions
The first Geneva Convention protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war.
This Convention represents the fourth updated version of the Geneva Convention on the wounded and sick following those adopted in 1864, 1906 and 1929. It contains 64 articles. These provide protection for the wounded and sick, but also for medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transports. The Convention also recognizes the distinctive emblems. It has two annexes containing a draft agreement relating to hospital zones and a model identity card for medical and religious personnel.
The second Geneva Convention protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.
This Convention replaced Hague Convention of 1907 for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention. It closely follows the provisions of the first Geneva Convention in structure and content. It has 63 articles specifically applicable to war at sea. For example, it protects hospital ships. It has one annex containing a model identity card for medical and religious personnel.
The third Geneva Convention applies to prisoners of war.
This Convention replaced the Prisoners of War Convention of 1929. It contains 143 articles whereas the 1929 Convention had only 97. The categories of persons entitled to prisoner of war status were broadened in accordance with Conventions I and II. The conditions and places of captivity were more precisely defined, particularly with regard to the labour of prisoners of war, their financial resources, the relief they receive, and the judicial proceedings instituted against them. The Convention establishes the principle that prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities. The Convention has five annexes containing various model regulations and identity and other cards.
The Fourth Geneva Convention protects civilians, including those in occupied territory.
The Geneva Conventions, which were adopted before 1949. were concerned with combatants only, not with civilians. The events of World War II showed the disastrous consequences of the absence of a convention for the protection of civilians in wartime. The Convention adopted in 1949 takes account of the experiences of World War II. It is composed of 159 articles. It contains a short section concerning the general protection of populations against certain consequences of war, without addressing the conduct of hostilities, as such, which was later examined in the Additional Protocols of 1977. The bulk of the Convention deals with the status and treatment of protected persons, distinguishing between the situation of foreigners on the territory of one of the parties to the conflict and that of civilians in occupied territory. It spells out the obligations of the Occupying Power vis-à-vis the civilian population and contains detailed provisions on humanitarian relief for populations in occupied territory. It also contains a specific regime for the treatment of civilian internees. It has three annexes containing a model agreement on hospital and safety zones, model regulations on humanitarian relief and model cards.
Common Article 3
Article 3, common to the four Geneva Conventions, marked a breakthrough, as it covered, for the first time, situations of non-international armed conflicts. These types of conflicts vary greatly. They include traditional civil wars, internal armed conflicts that spill over into other States or internal conflicts in which third States or a multinational force intervenes alongside the government. Common Article 3 establishes fundamental rules from which no derogation is permitted. It is like a mini-Convention within the Conventions as it contains the essential rules of the Geneva Conventions in a condensed format and makes them applicable to conflicts not of an international character:
It requires humane treatment for all persons in enemy hands, without any adverse distinction. It specifically prohibits murder, mutilation, torture, cruel, humiliating and degrading treatment, the taking of hostages and unfair trial. It requires that the wounded, sick and shipwrecked be collected and cared for. It grants the ICRC the right to offer its services to the parties to the conflict. It calls on the parties to the conflict to bring all or parts of the Geneva Conventions into force through so-called special agreements. It recognizes that the application of these rules does not affect the legal status of the parties to the conflict. Given that most armed conflicts today are non-international, applying Common Article 3 is of the utmost importance. Its full respect is required.
The Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions
In the two decades that followed the adoption of the Geneva Conventions, the world witnessed an increase in the number of non-international armed conflicts and wars of national liberation. In response, two Protocols Additional to the four 1949 Geneva Conventions were adopted in 1977. They strengthen the protection of victims of international (Protocol I) and non-international (Protocol II) armed conflicts and place limits on the way wars are fought. Protocol II was the first-ever international treaty devoted exclusively to situations of non-international armed conflicts.
In 2005, a third Additional Protocol was adopted creating an additional emblem, the Red Crystal, which has the same international status as the Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems.
Current Affairs 2019
1. The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet has, based on the panel recommended by the Committee constituted as per Section 4A(1) of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, approved the appointment of Shri Rishi Kumar Shukla, IPS(MP:1983) as Director, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) vice Shri Alok Kumar Verma, IPS(AGMU:1979), for a period of two years from the date of assumption of charge of the office.
2. Draft of “The National River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Bill 2018” provides for the constitution of Ganga Protection Corps as an armed forces of the union.
The Ganga Protection Corps is proposed to be empowered to arrest or caused to be arrested for offence under the Act, and to take the person to the nearest police station. The Court would take cognizance of the offence on the basis of the complaint filed by the officers who are authrorized under the proposed Act.
The draft Act contemplates certain provisions conferring powers to the “National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga” [National Ganga Council] to arrange to carry out or caused to be carried out impact assessment of certain projects and activities which affect or are likely to affect the flow of water in river Ganga, such as building barrages, deforestation on hill slopes, hydroelectric projects etc.
3. The prototype of one kilogram (NPK-57) is already available in India and placed at National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi as per the provisions made under the Legal Metrology (National Standards) Rules, 2011. There is no such proposal at present before the Government to achieve the new prototype of kilogram through physical constants.
The previous definition of kilogram was based on the mass of the international prototype ‘kilogram’ which is an artefact, however, the new definition is based on physical constants of nature. The change is in the definition of kilogram and will not have any practical implications.
4. The top ten revenue generating monuments during 2015-18 are Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Humayun’s Tomb, Sun Temple Konark, Group of monuments Mamallapuram, Ellora Caves, Group of monuments Khajuraho, and Ajanta Caves, Aurangabad.
5. Empowered Committee of Officers for Nirbhaya funds scheme has approved pilot Safe City projects in eight selected metropolitan cities, namely, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Lucknow with a view to provide safety to women in public places at a total cost of Rs. 2919.55 crore. Out of these, funds have been released to States for five project.
6. India’s latest communication satellite, GSAT-31 was successfully launched from the Spaceport in French Guiana on 6th feb 2019.
7. The World Bank has approved Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY), a Rs.6000 Crore scheme, for sustainable management of ground water with community participation. The funding pattern is 50:50 between Government of India and World Bank.
8. Union Minister Smt Harsimrat Kaur Badal commissioned Godavari Mega Aqua Food Park at Tundurru Village in Bhimavaram Mandal, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh via video conferencing today. The park is promoted by M/s Godavari Mega Aqua Food Park Pvt. Ltd. This is the 1st Mega Aqua Food Park operationalised exclusively established for fish and marine products processing in the State of Andhra Pradesh.
Current Affairs 2019
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has been renamed as the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade.’
2. UNESCO has declared 2019 as the International Year of the Period Table of Chemical Elements to commemorate the 150th birthday of the periodic table of chemical elements. The Periodic table of the Chemical elements was first published by Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleev in the year 1869.
3. The Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index make the following observations:
• Denmark is the world least corrupt country scoring 88 out of 100 points. Denmark is followed by New Zealand and Finland.
• Somalia has been ranked last with a score of 10 behind South Sudan and Syria.
4. The Winners of the Australian Open 2019 are:
• Women’s Singles: Naomi Osaka of Japan.
• Men’s Singles: Novak Djokovic of Serbia.
• Women’s Doubles: Samantha Stosur of Australia and Zhang Shuai of China.
• Men’s Doubles: Pierre-Hugues Herbert and Nicolas Mahut of France.
• Mixed Doubles: Czech Republic’s Barbora Krejcikova and Rajeev Ram of the US.
5. India has successfully flight tested Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM) from a warship off Odisha coast. The LRSAM successfully destroyed a low flying aerial target. This paves way for its deployment in the armed forces.
6. India’s highest peacetime gallantry honour, Ashoka Chakra was awarded to Lance Naik Nazir Wani posthumously. The award was presented by President Ram Nath Kovind was received by Wani’s wife and mother at the Republic Day celebrations held at Rajpath. Lance Naik Nazir Wani also holds the distinction of being the first Kashmiri to be conferred the Ashoka Chakra.
7. The 2019 Bharat Ratna award has been bestowed upon former President Pranab Mukherjee, Nanaji Deshmukh and singer Bhupen Hazarika. Nanaji Deshmukh and singer Bhupen Hazarika were awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously.
8. ndian Space Research Organisation (Isro) has launched the Kalamsat-V2 from Sriharikota space centre.
The satellite is named after former president and Indian scientist Dr Abdul Kalam. The features of the Kalamsat V2 satellite are:
• It is the lightest satellite to be ever built and launched into orbit and it is also Isro’s first launch of a satellite built by a private firm.
• It is a communications satellite for ham radio transmission, a form of wireless communication used by amateurs for non-commercial activities.
9. The ICC awards recognise and honour the best international cricket players of the previous 12 months. The ICC awards 2018 list:
• Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy for ICC Cricketer of the Year: Virat Kohli
• ICC Men’s Test Player of the Year: Virat Kohli
• ICC ODI Player of the Year: Virat Kohli
• ICC Emerging Player of the Year: Rishabh Pant
10. The Prime Minister Narendra Modi has inaugurated the National Museum of Indian Cinema (NMIC) at Films Division of India premises in Mumbai.
11. The TRAI has released the Tele-density data of India. Important observations from the TRAI data are listed below:
• The total number of mobile phone subscribers in India by the end of November was 117.18 crore with a net addition of 17.39 lakh customers during the month.
• The private access service providers held 89.99 per cent market share of the wireless subscribers whereas BSNL and MTNL, the two PSU access service providers, had a market share of only 10.01 per cent as on November 2018.
• Reliance Jio led the subscription race in November 2018 adding around 88.01 lakh subscribers across the country.
12. Satyarup Siddhanta, 35-year-old Kolkata mountaineer has set the world record of youngest to climb 7 highest volcanoes, 7 highest mountains in 7 continents in 7 years. He is also the first Indian to conquer the seven mountain peaks and seven volcanic summits.
13The Union government has announced the winners for International Gandhi Peace Prize. The awards were announced for the years 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 after the gap of four years.
Winners of Gandhi Peace Prize
The government has announced the names of Vivekananda Kendra in Kanyakumari (2015), AkshayaPatra Foundation and Sulabh International (2016), EkalAbhiyan Trust (2017) and Yohei Sasakawa (2018) for the International Gandhi Peace Prize
14. President Ramnath Kovind has given the assent to the 124th constitutional Amendment Bill (which is now Constitution 103rd amendment Act) providing 10 per cent reservation for economically weaker sections.
Key Facts about the 103rdConstitutional Amendment Act
The Important components of the 103rd constitutional Amendment are:
• The amendment changed two fundamental rights, Article 15 and 16. The amendments provide for the advancement of the “economically weaker sections” of the society.
• The amendment aims to fulfil the commitments of the directive principles of state policy under Article 46, to promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society.
15. The Pravasi Bhartiya Divas (PBD) will be held at Varanasi on January 21 and would be formally inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on January 22. The theme of the PBD 2019 is “Role of Indian Diaspora in building a New India.”
16. The Union Environment Minister Harsh Vardhan launched the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). The programme aims to tackle the challenge of increasing pollution in the cities and towns.
Features of the Programme
The important features of the programme are:
• It is a five-year action plan with a tentative target of 20-30% reduction in concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 by 2024, with 2017 as the base year.
• The plan covers 102 non-attainment cities, across 23 states and Union territories, which were identified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on the basis of their ambient air quality data between 2011 and 2015.
17. Prime Minister, Narendra Modi delivered the inaugural address at the 106th session of the Indian Science Congress. The 106th Indian Science Congress is being held at Jalandhar. The theme of the 106th science congress is ‘Future India: Science and Technology’.
18. Separate High Courts will start functioning for the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh from 1st January 2019. The High Court for Telangana is the 25th High Court in the country.
Telangana was carved out of Andra Pradesh in 2014 and the two states continued to have a common high court in Hyderabad.
Current Affairs 2018
9 States achieve 100 % household electrification under Saubhagya; total 16 states have 100 % household electrification now
More than 2 crore electricity connections released under Saubhagya and 100 per cent village electrification achieved under DDUGJY
Energy deficit reduced to almost zero and India emerges as net exporter of electricity to Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar
31.68 crore LED bulbs distributed under UJALA scheme and 74.79 lakh LED street lights have been installed
India’s rank improved to 24 in 2018 from 137 in 2014 on World Bank’s Ease of doing business – “Getting Electricity” Ranking
• Launched for universal electrification in September, 2017
• Camps organised at village level. Minimum documentation required
• Special drive for economically weaker sections under Gram Swaraj Abhiyan
• Over 2.1 crore households electrified since 11th Oct, 2017
• 9 States have achieved 100% saturation in household electrification under Saubhagya namely Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Bihar, J&K, Uttarakhand, Mizoram, Sikkim, Telangana and West Bengal.
• Thus total 16 States in the country now have 100 % household electrification.
• Many more State like Maharashtra, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh etc. are left with small number of un-electrified households and expected to achieve saturation any time.
• Nation expected to achieve 100 % household electrification by 31st December, 2018
Achievement under Saubhagya during January to November 2018
• Number of households electrified – more than 2 Crore
2. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGKY)
• 100 per cent village electrification achieved
• Outlay of Rs. 75,893 crore
• 2,58,870 km HT and LT lines
• 4.10.146 distribution transformers
3. Generation capacity
• Around 1,07,000 MW Generation Capacity has been added till October 2018 since April 2014.
• All India Generation Installed Capacity has increased by 39.2% from 2,48,554 MW as on 31.3.2014 to 3,46,048 MW as on 31.10.2018.
• India emerges as net exporter of electricity. 7203 MU supplied to Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar in FY 2017-18 and 4628 MU in current year 2018-19 (Upto October 2018).
• Energy deficit reduced from 4.2% in FY 2013-14 to 0.6% in Current FY 2018-19 (Upto October 2018). Peak Deficitalso reduced from 4.5% in FY 2013-14 to 0.8% in Current FY 2018-19 (Upto October 2018).
• Peak Demand Met has increased by 35.2% to 1,75,528 MW during the current year (April-October 2018) from 1,29,815 MW during same period in 2013-14.
• Energy Availability has also increased by 35.2% to 764.627 BU during the current year (April-October 2018) from 565.698 BU during same period in 2013-14.
4. One Grid One Nation (Achievements till Oct, 2018)
• Expansion of transmission grid by 1,11,433 ckm from 2014-15 to 2018-19 (11,799 ckm added in FY 2018-19)
• Transformation capacity addition of 3,38,202 MVA from 2014-15 to 2018-19 (41,790 MVA added in FY 2018-19)
• 26 projects worth Rs. 48,426 crore awarded through Tariff Based Competitive Bidding from 2014-15 to 2018-19.
• Inter-regional transfer capacity addition more than tripled from 16,000 MW in FY 2010-14 to 54,700 MW during FY 2014-15 to 2018-19 (4,200 MW added in FY 2018-19).
5. Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)
• Outlay of Rs. 65,424 crore
• 1378 towns IT enabled
• 1900 additional towns under progress
• Installation of 43,449 Km HT and LT lines completed out of the total 1,30,348 Km of awarded quantity
• Installation of 28,193 distribution transformers completed out of the total 58,145 no. of awarded quantity
• More than Rs.34,000 Crores interest cost saved by DISCOMs under UDAY within two years.
• Reduction in AT&C losses in 22 States within two years of operation. AT&C losses have come down to 18.76% in FY18 as compared to 20.77% in FY16.
Revenue gaps bridged by 72 per cent within two years operation of UDAY. The national level ACS-ARR gaps are at 17 paise/unit in FY18 as compared to 60 paise/unit in FY16.
• India’s rank improved to 24 in 2018 from 137 in 2014 on World Bank’s Ease of doing business – “Getting Electricity” Ranking.
7. Focus on North-East region-
• Rs. 9865.75 crore projects in progress for strengthening / development of intra-state transmission & distribution systems in NER (including Sikkim).
• Electrification of 6379 villages and intensive electrification of 9822 villages completed.
• 130 towns IT enabled.
• 68.76 lakh LED bulbs distributed under UJALA scheme
• 99,895 LED streetlights installed under the SLNP scheme
• Rs. 9866 crore projects undertaken for strengthening/development of intra-state transmission
8. 4376 MW hydel capacity addition (FY 2014-18)
9. Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservaton
i. Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LED for All (UJALA)
• 31.68 crore LED bulbs distributed under UJALA scheme resulting in estimated cost saving of INR 16,457 crore per year, estimated energy savings of 41.14 billion kWh per year with avoided peak demand of 8,237 MW and GHG emission reduction of 33.32 million t CO2 per year.
• 88 percent reduction in LED bulb procurement cost through demand aggregation
ii. Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP)
• To replace 1.34 crore conventional streetlights with smart and energy efficient LED street lights by March, 2019.
• 74.79 lakh LED street lights have been installed resulting in estimated energy savings of 5.02 billion kWh per year with avoided peak demand of 837 MW and GHG emission reduction of 3.46 million t CO2 per year
iii. Transport Sector
National E-Mobility Programme launched to provide an impetus to the entire e-mobility ecosystem including vehicle manufacturers, charging infrastructure companies, fleet operators, service providers, etc.
• No licence required for charging stations
• Procurement of 10,000 e-cars concluded for Government institutions
• 902 e-cars have been deployed/under registration
iv. BEE Star Labelling
• The Chiller Star Labelling Program has been launched by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) to encourage the deployment of Energy Efficient chiller systems. The program envisages providing star rating in terms of its energy performance. Initially, the program is launched on voluntary basis and will be valid upto 31′ December 2020.
• LED and inverter AC have been notified under mandatory regime. Star labelling program for Variable speed Air Conditioners and LED lamps were notified in mandatory domain during the year 2017. The implementation of the same has begun w.e.f 1st January, 2018.
• Star labelling program saved energy worth INR 22,500 crore during the year 2017-18
v. Industrial Energy Efficiency
• Energy efficiency measures through PAT in large industries saved energy worth Rs. 9500 crore annually.
• Notification of PAT cycle IV for 846 DCs from 13 sectors has been issued
vi. Building Energy Efficiency
• Energy Conservation Guidelines launched for large scale industries to promote equipment efficiency by reducing energy consumption with the help of standardizing the energy performance values of various energy-consuming equipment and systems deployed for the manufacturing process.
7 Oct to 14 Nov
1. The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an alliance of more than 121 countries initiated by India, most of them being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The primary objective of the alliance is to work for efficient exploitation of solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. This initiative was first proposed by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a speech in November 2015 at Wembley Stadium, in which he referred to sunshine countries as Suryaputra (“Sons of the Sun”).
2. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved renaming of Jharsuguda Airport, Odisha as “Veer Surendra Sai Airport, Jharsuguda” Veer Surendra Sai is a well-known freedom fighter of Odisha. Renaming of the Jharsuguda airport in his name will fulfill long-pending demand of the Odisha Government, which reflects the sentiments of the local public of the respective area. It will also be a befitting tribute to the contribution of the revered personality associated with the State.
3. Exercise DHARMA GUARDIAN – 2018, a joint military exercise between Indian & Japanese Armies, commenced at Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School, Vairengete, Mizoram, India on 01 November 2018.
4. Ministry of AYUSH observes Ayurveda Day every year on Dhanawantari Jayanti (Dhanteras). This year Ayurveda Day is being observed on 5th November 2018.
5. NASA’s InSight successfully lands on Mars. The NASA robotic lander InSight lands safely on the Elysium Planitia plain of Mars to study the geology of the red planet.
6. Russia stops three Ukrainian Navy vessels from passing under the Kerch Strait Bridge by blocking it with a cargo ship. Russia claims they violated her territorial waters and ignored warnings. The navy vessels and their crews are seized after shots were fired. Russia says three Ukrainians were wounded. According to Ukraine, six of their sailors are wounded. Ukraine denies their ships did anything wrong.
7. India’s GSAT-29 communication satellite was successfully launched by the second developmental flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle MarkIII (GSLV MkIII-D2) today from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota. GSLV MkIII-D2 lifted off from the Second Launch Pad of SDSC SHAR at 17:08 hours (IST), carrying the 3423-kg GSAT-29 satellite. About 17 minutes later, the vehicle injected the satellite into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) as planned.
8. Cyclonic Storm Sagar was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in Somalia in recorded history, and the first named cyclone of the 2018 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Forming on May 16 east of the Guardafui Channel, Sagar intensified and gradually organized.
9. The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have one-minute maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (33 m/s; 64 kn; 119 km/h) (Category 1). The highest classification in the scale, Category 5, consists of storms with sustained winds over 156 mph (70 m/s; 136 kn; 251 km/h).
6 Oct to 13 Nov
1. Operation Green is related to stabilise supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato
2. Angad Vir Singh wins gold in Men’s skeet shooting at 8th Asian Shotgun championship.
3.Lucknow cricket stadium renamed as Bharat Ratna Atal Bihari Vajpayee International Cricket Stadium.
4.US exempts India from imposition of sanctions over Chabahar port in Iran.
5.Cabinet approves Extradition agreement with Morocco.
6. India is the 2nd largest smartphone market in the world. China -1, U.S. -3
7.Ashok kumar Gupta appointed as Chairperson of Competition Commission of India. He replaced Sudhir Mittal.
8.Ladakh restoration done by Ladakh Arts and Media Organisation has won 2018 UNESCO Asia Pacific award for Cultural heritage.
29 Oct to 5 Nov
1. India ranks 77 in Ease of Doing Business Report
2. Ease of Doing Business report is released by World Bank.
3.In 2017 india’s rank was 100 in Ease of doing Business report.
4.Lt General P S Rajeshwar appointed as Chief of Integrated defence Staff.
5.PM unveils statue of Unity, world’s tallest at 182m, in tribute to Sardar Patel on 31st October.
6.The Andhra Pradesh government is building a world class and India’s first Justice City at Amravati.
7. 2nd November is International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists..
22 Oct to 28 oct
1. Eat Right India’ movement has been launched by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The ‘Eat Right India’ movement is a collective effort of key stakeholders and citizens and is aligned with Government’s recent focus on public health through its three key programmes, namely ‘Ayushman Bharat’, ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’, and ‘POSHAN Abhiyaan’
2. The ‘Swasth Bharat Yatra’ will be flagged off on 16th October, 2018 (World Food Day) on six tracks from six different locations and cover almost all States/UTs, culminating at New Delhi on 27th January, 2019. It will comprise of a team of 150 ‘Volunteer-Cyclists’ and the convoy would include an ‘Eat Right Mobile Unit’ and a Mobile Food Testing Unit. The Convoy would make ‘stop-overs’ in cities and towns and have transit ‘halts’ and activities in over 2000 locations spread over 100 days.
3.E.M. is an abbreviation for Effective Microorganisms
Microorganisms are tiny units of life that are too small to be seen with the naked eye and they exist everywhere in nature. Microorganisms are crucial for maintaining the ecological balance. They carry out chemical processes that make it possible for all other organisms including humans to live. There are friendly guys of the microbial worlds known as beneficial microorganisms and a not so friendly group called pathogens that are
harmful and capable of producing disease, decay and pollution.
In 1982 Dr.Higa at the University of Ryukyus, Okinawa Japan, discovered a specific group of naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms with an amazing ability to revive, restore, and preserve. He named this group E.M. (Effective microorganisms).
15 Oct to 21 oct
India has been ranked at the 103rd position among 119 countries on the Global Hunger Index.According to the report, prepared by Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide, India is among the 45 countries that have “serious levels of hunger”. In 2017, India was ranked at the 100th position but ranking for this year is not comparable, it said. The GHI, now in its 13th year, ranks countries based on four key indicators – undernourishment, child mortality, child wasting and child stunting. India is ranked below many neighbouring countries, including China (25th spot), Nepal (72), Myanmar (68), Sri Lanka (67) and Bangladesh (86). Pakistan is placed at the 106th position
Eat Right India’ movement has been launched by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The ‘Eat Right India’ movement is a collective effort of key stakeholders and citizens and is aligned with Government’s recent focus on public health through its three key programmes, namely ‘Ayushman Bharat’, ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’, and ‘POSHAN Abhiyaan’
The ‘Swasth Bharat Yatra’ will be flagged off on 16th October, 2018 (World Food Day) on six tracks from six different locations and cover almost all States/UTs, culminating at New Delhi on 27th January, 2019. It will comprise of a team of 150 ‘Volunteer-Cyclists’ and the convoy would include an ‘Eat Right Mobile Unit’ and a Mobile Food Testing Unit. The Convoy would make ‘stop-overs’ in cities and towns and have transit ‘halts’ and activities in over 2000 locations spread over 100 days.
Justice Ranjan Gogoi took oath as the 46th Chief Justice of India. He succeeds Justice Dipak Misra who retired on October 1. Justice Gogoi was administered the oath of office by President Ram Nath Kovind at Rastrapati Bhavan.Ranjan Gogoi, 63, is the first person from the northeast to become the Chief Justice of India
On September 23, 2018, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched Ayushman Bharat, world’s largest government-funded healthcare scheme in Jharkhand’s capital Ranchi. The Centre’s flagship scheme has been renamed as PM Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY). The scheme will become operational from September 25 on the birth anniversary of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay.The Ayushman Bharat scheme aims to provide coverage of Rs 5 lakh per family annually, benefiting more than 50 crore people for secondary and tertiary care hospitalisation through a network of empanelled health care providers.
8 Oct to 14 oct
First Indian In Space, Rakesh Sharma gives freen Signal to ‘Gaganyaan’
Rakesh Sharma , the first Indian Ventured into space, has approved Narendra Modi’s ‘Gaganyaan’ Program of having a national space mission by 2022. An Indian will be sent into space under this program . if this program become successful India will be the fourth country after China Russia , and US to send a person into space.
10 OCT 2018 Current Events
Alert issued for the Cyclone in Odisha on October 10 and 11
The India Meteorological Department (IMD) issued a Cyclone alert In Odisha On October 10 and 11. The eye of the Cyclone Titli has Been Located at 530 Km southeast of Gopalpur, Odisha and 480 Km east- southeast of Kalingapatnam , Andhra Pradesh, Alerts have Been issued for 14 districts – Ganjam, puri, Boudh, Gajapati, Kandhamal Boudh, Jagatsinghpur. Cuttack, Kendrapara, Dhenkanal, Balasora, Bhadak and Nayagarh. Fishermen have also advised not to venture in to sea on these days The National Emergency Respomse Center (NERC) Which is under The Home Ministry has Cautioned the State Government
1 Oct to 7 oct
- The Champions of the Earth award is the United Nations highest environmental honour recognizing visionary people and organisations all over the world that exemplify leadership and advocate action on sustainable development, climate change and a life of dignity for all.The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) established Champions of the Earth in 2005 as an annual awards programme to recognize outstanding environmental leaders from the public and private sectors, and from civil society.
- The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today (1st October 2018)decided to award the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”
- Cancer kills millions of people every year and is one of humanity’s greatest health challenges. By stimulating the inherent ability of our immune system to attack tumour cells this year’s Nobel Laureates have established an entirely new principle for cancer therapy.
- James P. Allison studied a known protein that functions as a brake on the immune system. He realised the potential of releasing the brake and thereby unleashing our immune cells to attack tumours. He then developed this concept into a brand new approach for treating patients.
- In parallel, Tasuku Honjo discovered a protein on immune cells and, after careful exploration of its function, eventually revealed that it also operates as a brake, but with a different mechanism of action. Therapies based on his discovery proved to be strikingly effective in the fight against cancer.
- Allison and Honjo showed how different strategies for inhibiting the brakes on the immune system can be used in the treatment of cancer. The seminal discoveries by the two laureates constitute a landmark in our fight against cancer.
- A type of drug that blocks certain proteins made by some types of immune system cells, such as T cells, and some cancer cells. These proteins help keep immune responses in check and can keep T cells from killing cancer cells. When these proteins are blocked, the “brakes” on the immune system are released and T cells are able to kill cancer cells better. Examples of checkpoint proteins found on T cells or cancer cells include PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4/B7-1/B7-2. Some immune checkpoint inhibitors are used to treat cancer.
An important part of the immune system is its ability to tell between normal cells in the body and those it sees as “foreign.” This lets the immune system attack the foreign cells while leaving the normal cells alone. To do this, it uses “checkpoints” – molecules on certain immune cells that need to be activated (or inactivated) to start an immune response.
Cancer cells sometimes find ways to use these checkpoints to avoid being attacked by the immune system. But drugs that target these checkpoints hold a lot of promise as cancer treatments.
Drugs that target PD-1 or PD-L1
PD-1 is a checkpoint protein on immune cells called T cells. It normally acts as a type of “off switch” that helps keep the T cells from attacking other cells in the body. It does this when it attaches to PD-L1, a protein on some normal (and cancer) cells. When PD-1 binds to PD-L1, it basically tells the T cell to leave the other cell alone. Some cancer cells have large amounts of PD-L1, which helps them evade immune attack.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics” with one half to Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems” and the other half jointly to Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.”
- The inventions being honoured this year have revolutionised laser physics. Extremely small objects and incredibly fast processes now appear in a new light. Not only physics, but also chemistry, biology and medicine have gained precision instruments for use in basic research and practical applications.
- Arthur Ashkin invented optical tweezers that grab particles, atoms and molecules with their laser beam fingers. Viruses, bacteria and other living cells can be held too, and examined and manipulated without being damaged. Ashkin’s optical tweezers have created entirely new opportunities for observing and controlling the machinery of life.
- Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland paved the way towards the shortest and most intense laser pulses created by mankind. The technique they developed has opened up new areas of research and led to broad industrial and medical applications; for example, millions of eye operations are performed every year with the sharpest of laser beams.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 with one half to Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes” and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”
- The power of evolution is revealed through the diversity of life. The 2018 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have taken control of evolution and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefit to humankind. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals. Antibodies evolved using a method called phage display can combat autoimmune diseases and, in some cases, cure metastatic cancer.
- This year’s Nobel Laureates have been inspired by the power of evolution and used the same principles – genetic change and selection – to develop proteins that solve humankind’s chemical problems.
- This year’s Nobel Laureate Frances Arnold is the star of enzyme engineering
- Instead of producing pharmaceuticals, plastics and other chemicals using traditional chemistry, her idea was to use the chemical tools of life: enzymes. They catalyse the chemical reactions that occur in the Earth’s organisms and, if she learned to design new enzymes, she could fundamentally change chemistry.
- Enzymes are extremely complex molecules. Using logic to try to work out how they can be remodelled to give them new properties is difficult, even with contemporary knowledge and computer power. Arnold decided to abandon this and instead found inspiration in nature’s own method for optimising chemistry: evolution.
- The enzymes now produced in Arnold’s laboratory can catalyse chemistry that does not even exist in nature, producing entirely new materials. Her tailored enzymes have also become important tools in the manufacture of various substances, such as pharmaceuticals.